This book is a contemporary overview of selected topics in fiber optics. It focuses on the latest research results on light wave manipulation using nonlinear optical fibers, with the aim of capturing some of the most innovative developments on this topic. The book’s scope covers both fundamentals and applications from both theoretical and experimental perspectives, with topics including linear and nonlinear effects, pulse propagation phenomena and pulse shaping, solitons and rogue waves, novel optical fibers, supercontinuum generation, polarization management, optical signal processing, fiber lasers, optical wave turbulence, light propagation in disordered fiber media, and slow and fast light. With contributions from leading-edge scientists in the field of nonlinear photonics and fiber optics, they offer an overview of the latest advances in their own research area. The listing of recent research papers at the end of each chapter is useful for researchers using the book as a reference. As the book addresses fundamental and practical photonics problems, it will also be of interest to, and benefit, broader academic communities, including areas such as nonlinear science, applied mathematics and physics, and optical engineering. It offers the reader a wide and critical overview of the state-of-the-art within this practical – as well as fundamentally important and interesting – area of modern science, providing a useful reference which will encourage further research and advances in the field.